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Seeing God's Glory in Jesus the Son

December 9, 2018 Speaker: Bret Rogers Series: Jesus | True God from True God

Topic: Advent, Trinity/Christology

Before he died in the Lord, I remember Facetiming with my Opa. Opa was in the hospital. Despite weakening health, he always wanted to talk Scripture. John 1:18 was the text that afternoon: “No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the Father’s side, he has made him known.” “That’s the key,” he told me. “Once you see that Jesus is God, everything else in the Bible makes sense; it just falls into place. People have got to understand that.”

I won’t forget those words. My aim this Advent is to give you that “key.” It’s to strengthen your confession that Jesus is God. It’s to help you behold God’s glory in his Son who became flesh to save us. We started an Advent series—Jesus, True God from True God. We’re studying the deity of Jesus from John’s Gospel and Revelation.

Jesus' Unique Identity, Mission, & Glory

Last week we covered the intro to John’s Gospel. John begins his portrait of Jesus with a story about the Word: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” Here we find the Word’s eternal existence, his personal communion with God the Father, even his divine nature as God.

Then comes one of the most remarkable sentences in verse 14: “the Word became flesh and dwelt among us…” John doesn’t mean the Word forfeited or limited his deity.[i] He means the Word added to himself a human nature. Not deity turned into man. Not man swallowed up by deity. But one person with two natures: truly God, truly man.

Of this Word made flesh, John then says, “we have seen his glory.” Remember, God’s word is his personal self-expression. When the eternal Word becomes flesh, God’s personal self-expression occurs. In that human self-expression John witnesses “glory” he says, “as of the only Son from the Father,” and he names him Jesus Christ in verse 17.

So John’s portrait of Jesus begins with Jesus’ unique identity. The Word/Jesus’ identity is that of divine Son. He holds deity in common with the Father, but he does so as the Father’s Son.[ii] He’s also the only Son from the Father. That’s Jesus’ unique mission. Not only was the Word/Son with the Father eternally—verse 1. He came from the Father in history—verse 14. He has a mission.

John unfolds that mission in his Gospel; and as he writes John testifies to Jesus’ unique glory. “We have seen his glory…” In other words, “I’ve already seen it. I followed him. I put my head in his chest. I saw the soldier pierce his side. I witnessed his empty tomb. I’ve seen glory as the only Son from the Father; and I’m writing a Gospel so that you see his glory also!”

But how exactly did John witness this unique glory? How could John, a monotheistic Jew, have the guts to include Jesus within the divine identity? That’s at the height of blasphemy for Jews. What did he witness that leads him to say, “This Jesus, the Word, was God?” It’s not like Jesus walked around with a halo and blinding brilliance. His glory was veiled. How, then, did John witness God’s glory in Jesus?

1. God’s Glory in Jesus’ Words

Four ways; and these four ways convince John that Jesus is God; and they ought to convince you too. Number one, John witnesses God’s glory in Jesus’ words. Someone could say, “Jesus’ words are God’s words just like other prophets’ words are God’s words.” There’s certainly much overlap; and Jesus is the superior Prophet. But John’s Gospel clarifies something more about Jesus’ words.

To begin, John contrasts Jesus with John the Baptist, who is a prophet. He’s even an agent sent from God (John 1:6). But his status differs with Jesus—1:8, “[John] was not the light but came to bear witness about the light.” Or 1:15, from John the Baptist himself, “He who comes after me ranks before me, because he was before me.” John speaks with unequal status with God; Jesus speaks with equal status as God.

More than that, John the Baptist says this in 3:32, “He who comes from above is above all.” That’s Jesus. “He who is of the earth [i.e., John] belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all. He bears witness to what he has seen and heard…” Jesus has a unique privilege unknown to a mere prophet or angelic mediator. Jesus speaks of what he has beheld with God.[iii]

Also, Jesus speaks only God the Father’s words. John 12:50, “What I say…I say as the Father has told me.” John 14:10, “The words I say to you I don’t speak on my own authority, but the Father who dwells in me does his works.”[iv] In other words, God the Father reveals himself not just through Jesus’ words but in Jesus’ words.

John 3:33-34 reveals that truth even further. “Whoever receives [Jesus’] testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true. For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure.” Follow the logic: Jesus has the Spirit “without measure” from the Father. Meaning, Jesus utters the words of God always, such that to hear Jesus is to hear the Father,[v] and to receive Jesus’ words shows not merely that Jesus is true but that God himself is true.

Even more, Jesus’ words have the power to give life. In the Old Testament, only God gives life.[vi] But in John’s Gospel, Jesus’ words spare the life of the official’s son (John 4:50) and they summon the dead Lazarus out of the tomb (John 11:43). Now, someone could object, “Yeah, but Elijah did the same, raising dead people.” True, but something that sets Jesus apart is that he has life in himself. John 1:4, “In him was life” (also John 5:26). That puts Jesus in the God category, the only self-sufficient one.

Also, John 5:25 says this: “An hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.” Then John 5:28-29, “Don’t marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come out, those who’ve done good to the resurrection of life, and those who’ve done evil to the resurrection of judgment.” Jesus’ words awaken the spiritually dead in the present;[vii] and his words will awaken the physically dead in the resurrection.

It’s no wonder that people respond to Jesus’ words as they do. They marvel over his teaching (John 7:15). They say, “no one ever spoke like this man” (John 7:46). The disciples, “You have words of eternal life.” According to John, Jesus’ words reveal God directly. He heard not just the word of God mediated through another sent prophet from below. He heard the word of God spoken by God, the sent Son from above.

2. God’s Glory in Jesus’ Works

Number two, John witnesses God’s glory in Jesus’ works. God the Father entrusts Jesus with a mission, and that mission includes works. The Son always knows these works and he accomplishes them unwaveringly.[viii] Don’t think Jesus does the Father’s works under compulsion. Rather, he does the works because his Father’s will is his will. John 5:19, “the Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, that the Son does likewise.”

What that means is this: as Jesus does the Father’s works, he reveals the Father. That’s what Jesus tells the Jews in 10:38, “If I’m not doing the works of my Father, don’t believe me; but if I do them, even though you don’t believe me, believe the works, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.”[ix] Father and Son are so united, that to see Jesus working, is to see God working.

Jesus nearly got stoned for this in 5:17. Jesus heals a guy to fulfill the Sabbath. The Jews miss it and get mad for him working. So Jesus says, “My Father is working until now, and I myself am working.” You know what they heard? “My work is God’s work. That’s all I do his God’s work.” That was enough for the Jews to discern he was making himself equal to God. But the point was that in Jesus’ works, people were supposed to see God revealed, God working, God saving.[x]

To be clear, Jesus did receive works that the Scriptures reserved for a human Messiah. But John places those works within the grand story of God the Son becoming that Messiah. Think back to his intro. The Word is personally distinct from God. But the Word also creates the world as God. So right from the get go, the Son’s work in creation is nothing other than God’s work. The same is true when he takes on humanity to become our Savior. All his works are the works of God. In them we should see a peculiar glory.

That becomes very explicit when John’s Gospel focuses on a few “signs” that reveal Jesus’ glory.[xi] He changes water into wine (John 2:1-11). He heals the officials son (John 4:46-54). He heals the invalid man (John 5:1-9). He feeds the five thousand (John 6:1-15). He heals the blind man (John 9). He raises Lazarus (John 11:1-44). We can’t look at them all today, but you’ll find phrases in them like, “he manifested his glory.” Or, with Lazarus, “Did I not tell you that if you believed you would see the glory of God.” What’s the point? To reveal God’s glory in Jesus’ works.

3. God’s Glory in Jesus’ Death on the Cross

The chief work, though, is that of Jesus’ cross. Which brings us to number three, John witnesses God’s glory in Jesus’ death on the cross. That’s contrary to the way we think, isn’t it? “Death on the cross! The cross is an object of shame! How can you speak in terms of glory?” Good question. But in John’s Gospel, the cross becomes the climactic revelation of God’s glory in his Son.[xii]

John drives his entire Gospel toward an appointed “hour.” Jesus describes that “hour” as his own glorification and links that glorification with his death. In John 12:23 Jesus says, “the hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.” Then he compares his death with a grain of wheat that must die to bear fruit. Then he prays this in verse 27: “For this purpose I have come to this hour. Father, glorify your name.” We get the same in 17:1, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you.”[xiii] Jesus’ humiliation on the cross is God displaying glory in the Son.

To help grasp this, think Old Testament with me. God’s glory is the weighty display of the intrinsic worth and goodness of the invisible God. God is invisible. His glory is when his worth and goodness go public. Sometimes, that happened through a theophany like when Moses hides in the rock as God’s glory passes by, or the glory cloud fills the tabernacle.[xiv] More often, though, people witnessed God’s glory when God acted to judge and to save.[xv] You can’t see God, but you can see Pharaoh’s army tossed into the see and God’s people saved. His worth went public in judgment and salvation.

John characterizes Jesus’ death on the cross as both an act of God judging and an act of God saving. God displays his righteousness and love in the death of Jesus. God’s righteousness demands an outpouring of wrath on sinners. John 3:36, “…whoever doesn’t obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.” Also in 5:24, those without eternal life come into judgment, which is condemnation.[xvi] That’s what everybody deserves for their rebellion against God.

But, in his love, God makes provision for sinners without compromising his righteousness. Despite the judgment that the world deserves, God chooses to love the world by giving his Son. John 3:16, “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.” Why will they not perish? Because God gives his Son as the sacrificial Lamb. This is why God the Son becomes man. He becomes man to endure the penalty for humans.[xvii]

In 18:11, Jesus characterizes his death in terms of willingly drinking “the cup.” The cup is here an Old Testament image for God’s wrath.[xviii] Also, in Jesus’ death God passes his sentence of judgment. John 12:31, “Now is the judgment of this world…”

In other words, the cross is where God displays the glory of his righteousness by judging sinners. At the same time God displays the glory of his love by giving his Son to endure the judgment for sinners. As one author put it, “This turns awful news of judgment on sin at the cross into the good news of deliverance from condemnation through the cross.”[xix] The cross becomes the revelation of the invisible God. To see Jesus dying is to see God himself judging, God himself loving, God himself revealed.

John goes further, though, by describing Jesus’ death as the point where he’s “lifted up.” Three times Jesus says, “the Son of Man will be lifted up” or “when I am lifted up.”[xx] The idea of him being “lifted up” contains a double meaning. Meaning one: the Romans will physically “lift up” Jesus’ body on a cross. Meaning two: God will simultaneously “lift up” his Son in a sense of exaltation. How do I know that?

Because John borrows the language Isaiah normally applies to Yahweh and his temple mount being “lifted up” or exalted. Six times Isaiah says that Yahweh or his temple will be “lifted up” above all other kingdoms.[xxi] There’s only one exception; and that’s when Isaiah applies it to the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 52:13. In other words, Isaiah applies the same language to the Servant that he applies to Yahweh.

John carries that over and basically says, “When you see Jesus lifted up on the cross, you’re witnessing God exalting his kingdom above all others. You’re witnessing God’s glory in his Servant conquering sin, death, and the devil.” So Jesus’ death paradoxically becomes the point where God displays his worth and goodness supremely.

4. God’s Glory in & through Jesus’ Spirit granting a post-resurrection understanding of the Scriptures

Not everybody has eyes to see Jesus’ death that way. Not even John had eyes to see Jesus that way, at first. He’s very honest about that, which adds to the credibility of his Gospel. It wasn’t until after Jesus rose from the dead that John gained a true understanding. That leads to number four: John witnesses God’s glory in and through Jesus’ Spirit granting a post-resurrection understanding of the Scriptures.

John 12:16 is very clear: “His disciples didn’t understand these things at first, but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things had been written about him…” Same in 2:22 and 20:9. These glorious things about Jesus weren’t clear. But when Jesus was glorified, they understood. Why is that?

Very briefly, the other way Jesus is glorified in John’s Gospel is when Jesus returns to the Father. But once he’s glorified in that sense, he sends the Holy Spirit on his disciples.[xxii] According to John 14-16, the Spirit then guides the disciples into all truth. He teaches them all things. He reminds them of Jesus’ teachings—including the way Jesus interpreted the Old Testament about himself.[xxiii]

And all of this—all of the Spirit’s illuminating work—John characterizes as the Spirit glorifying Jesus. The Spirit shines the spot-light on Jesus so we see him as he really is. John 16:14 says, “[the Spirit] will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you.” The Gospel you hold in your hand is the result of Jesus’ Spirit glorifying Jesus by helping the disciples understand who Jesus is, what Jesus did, and how the Old Testament talks about him.

One of the ways the Spirit glorifies Jesus is by applying to Jesus several concepts reserved exclusively for God in the Old Testament. John 1:1 alludes to Genesis 1:1 to show that the Word is the Creator God. John 1:5 refers to Jesus as “the light.” That’s applied very often to God in the Old Testament: in his presence light abounds and by his presence light often came to his people, whether visibly or morally.[xxiv]

I mentioned God’s glory filling the tabernacle. John 1:14 says the Word became flesh and dwelt among us. That language of dwelling comes from Exodus, and God himself “tabernacling” among the people. Only here, it’s applied to Jesus.

Isaiah 40 promises that God will return to save his people and display his glory before all flesh. John 1:23 uses Isaiah 40 to show that John the Baptist is the prophetic forerunner announcing God’s coming glory. Only, now it appears in Jesus.

John 12:38-41 is another great example. John quotes from both Isaiah 53 and Isaiah 6. Isaiah 53 is the Suffering Servant. Isaiah 6, though, is the vision of the Lord seated on his heavenly throne in majesty. John concludes, “[Isaiah] said these things because he saw [Jesus’] glory and spoke of him.” Isaiah saw glory in the Servant’s humility and glory in God’s holiness; and John says that was Jesus’ glory he saw.

Other examples exist, but the point is this: Jesus’ Spirit leads John to apply to Jesus concepts reserved exclusively for God in Scripture. When he does this, the glory of God in his Son is seen. So Jesus’ words, Jesus’ works, Jesus’ death, and Jesus’ Spirit, all reveal Jesus’ glory, “glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.”

God’s self-revelation in Jesus helps us know God the Father truly

How should that affect us this Advent? It certainly gives further proof that Jesus is God. We should confess him as so and preach him as so. But I want to focus first on how the revelation of God in Jesus should shape your vision of God.

For instance, some people may minimize God’s holiness. They view God as more of a cosmic grandfather, who spoils his grandkids despite their misbehavior. Sin isn’t a big deal. Rarely is there confession and brokenness. It’s not that bad—they might even compare themselves to others in the process. They might make excuses for it like, “Don’t judge me!” or “Stop being so legalistic, gosh!” They don’t like accountability. And true justice, well, take it or leave it. That all flows from a false view of God.

But if the cross really is what John says it is—a revelation of God’s glory in judgment—then we best see that God is indeed holy. He cares about justice. He doesn’t sweep sin under the rug. He condemns sin. He pours his wrath on sin. And that vision of God’s holiness at the cross should make us flee sin and hate sin and fall flat on our face before God when we sin, seeking his forgiveness. Sin is no small offense, if it requires a sacrifice of infinite worth to atone for it.

At the same time, others can’t imagine that God is a loving Father. Sometimes that’s because they’ve never known a loving father on earth. Others did, but they still can’t see how a holy God could show them love. In their eyes, they’re sin is too great. They can’t escape the constant feelings of guilt. They’re always afraid he’s angry with them. It’s like he’s an short-tempered, ogre-like tyrant just ready to snap.

But again, if the cross really is what John says it is—a revelation of God’s love in saving sinners—then rejoice that God loves you. The Gospel isn’t a story about a loving Son warding off his angry Father. No! At the cross we see the manner in which, and the degree to which, the Father loves his people. He gave up his only Son. Then we see the Son himself—imaging the Father’s love—by loving his disciples to the very end. Even in the face of removing their punishment, he lays down his life for the sheep.

Even more, in John 10:28-29 Jesus says, “I give [my sheep] eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.” You hear that? “My hand;” “the Father’s hand”—it’s the same hand holding you. Father and Son are one in their love and purpose to redeem you.

So take seriously Jesus’ words, “If you’ve seen me, [Philip,] you’ve seen the Father.” Let your view of God be shaped by his personal self-expression in Jesus. See God’s glory in Jesus, and you will know God more truly.

Behold God’s glory in Christ for transformation into his likeness.

At the same time, remember that seeing Jesus’ glory changed John forever. Seeing Jesus’ glory will change you forever as well. We grow and mature by continuing to behold Jesus’ glory. In 1 John 3:2, that’s what will eventually perfect us. He says, “Beloved, we are God’s children now, and what we will be has not yet appeared; but we know that when he appears we shall be like him…” Why? “Because we shall see him as he is.” Seeing Jesus as he is transforms us into his likeness.

The more of God’s glory John witnessed in Jesus, the more he became like Jesus as a disciple. Paul teaches the same in 2 Corinthians 4. God is in the business of opens people’s eyes to see his glory in the face of Jesus (cf. 2 Cor 4:4, 6). And God also transforms believers “from glory to glory” insofar as they keep beholding the glory of God in the person of Jesus. That’s 2 Corinthians 3:18.

If we don’t behold that glory in the sense of treasuring it and loving it and meditating on it, we won’t be changed. If you want God to sanctify you—to get rid of various sins, to make you more patient and loving, to fill you with zeal in evangelism—don’t just white-knuckle this Christian walk. Don’t just “keep on and carry on.” Behold God’s glory in Jesus. Change comes when the Spirit enables the “heart” (2 Cor 4:6) or the “mind” (2 Cor 4:4) to see the glory of Christ in the gospel.

Let the Son’s mission from the Father shape your mission.

Finally, let the Son’s mission from the Father shape your mission. One of the amazing aspects of the incarnation is that we witness God come down to save man. We witness God, who is light, taking the initiative to enter our darkness. We even see the divine revelation in the humiliation of Jesus’ incarnation and death. Then Jesus says this in John 20:21, “As the Father has sent me, even so I’m sending you.”

There’s a uniqueness to that sending we can’t replicate—God taking on our humanity; God exalted in the death of Jesus. But there’s something in that sending we apparently ought to replicate. The Father sent the Son into a dark world. The Son came, knowing it would cost his life. The Son humbled himself and came to sinners of all kinds: the prostitute, the tax collector, the poor, the despised, the Roman official, the blind man. He came to all peoples, no matter how sunk in sin.

That’s how we go. We humble ourselves and enter the darkness of peoples’ lives, not to participate in the darkness but to save from the darkness. We go to others as he came to us, a humble entry with willingness to die for another’s good.

As J. I. Packer puts it,

It is our shame and disgrace today that so many Christians…go through this world in the spirit of the priest and the Levite in our Lord’s parable, seeing human needs all around them, but…averting their eyes and passing by on the other side. That’s not the Christmas spirit. Nor is it the spirit of those Christians…whose ambition in life seems limited to building a nice middle-class Christian home, and making nice middle-class Christian friends, and bringing up their children in nice middle-class Christian ways, and who leave the submiddle-class sections of the community…to get on by themselves. The Christmas spirit does not shine out in the Christian snob. For the Christmas spirit is the spirit of those who, like their Master, live their whole lives on the principle of making themselves poor…to enrich their fellow humans, giving time, trouble, care and concern, to do good to others—and not just their own friends—in whatever way there seems need. There are not as many who show this spirit as there should be. If God in mercy revives us, one of the things he will do will be to work more of this spirit in our hearts and lives.

Brothers and sisters, in Jesus Christ we have witnessed—with John—what our God is like, what his glory is like. True glory doesn’t vie for the places of honor at the expense of others, true glory is characterized by taking up a cross.

________

[i]See especially the first sermon in this series, “The Word: God’s Self-Revelation in Jesus the Son.”

[ii]Köstenberger and Swain, Father, Son and Spirit, 112.

[iii]John 8:38, “I speak of what I have seen with my Father.”

[iv]Cf. also John 5:19-20; 14:24; 17:8.

[v]Notice also the links in John 5:37-38, where hearing God’s voice, having God’s word abiding in you, and believing the sent Son’s testimony are equivalent. In John 8:47, Jesus chides the Jews for not being able to hear God’s words, because they are not “of God,” a phrase reminiscent of the new birth in John 1:13. Indirectly, then, Jesus implies that the words the Jews have been hearing from him are no less than God’s words.

[vi]Examples in the OT where God’s word brings life to his people abound (e.g., Deut 8:3; 32:47; Ps 119:25, 107; Ezek 37:3-14).

[vii]Also, for someone not to obey the Son means they do not possess eternal life in the present age (John 3:36; cf. 6:68; 8:51). Jesus’ words are spirit and life (John 6:63).

[viii]John 5:19-20; 8:29; 17:4.

[ix]Also John 5:36; 14:10-11.

[x]Other passages that show Jesus’ works directly revealing the Father’s works include, e.g., John 5:19-20, 36; 9:3; 10:25, 32, 38; 12:45; 14:9.

[xi]At times, John uses “work” to encapsulate all that the Father gives Jesus to perform in his earthly mission (e.g., John 5:20, 36; 17:4). Within this broader category of “work/s” are Jesus’ words (John 14:10) and Jesus’ “signs,” the latter of which share significant semantic overlap with Jesus’ “works” (e.g., John 2:23; 3:2; 6:26; 7:31; 11:47). Finally, however, John appears to differentiate a few select signs from the others in general, and from these select signs he then develops a deeper theological point about Jesus that contributes to the Gospel’s overall purpose (e.g., John 2:11; 4:54; 6:14; 12:18; cf. also 7:21, though he uses “one work” in reference to the healing in John 5:1-9).

[xii]That’s not to minimize the glory John also witnesses in Jesus’ ascension. But the kind of glory in Jesus’ ascension carries a different nuance. The glory associated with the cross entails God displaying his power to judge and save in Jesus (John 12:23-24, 28; 13:31-32; 17:1; cf. 8:54; 21:19). The glory in the ascension entails the splendor granted Jesus with the Father as the God-man (John 7:39; 12:16; 17:4-5). The Father does not add to Jesus an intrinsic glory he forfeited in taking on flesh. Rather, the Father returns to Jesus his right to be seen as glorious in splendor. In taking on flesh, the Son set aside his right to be seen as glorious on earth (John 1:10, 14). In returning to the Father, having accomplished all the work the Father gave him to do on earth, the Father now ‘re-clothes’ Jesus with the observable splendor he once set aside, only then he dons it as the Word-made-flesh, the God-man.

[xiii]While the term “hour” doesn’t appear in John 13:31-32, it does appear in 13:1 in relation to the arrival of Jesus’ time to depart out of this world to the Father. That departure, however, would come first through the cross as indicated by Judas’ betrayal in John 13:30 and Jesus’ words following thereafter in John 13:31-32: “Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in him. If God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and glorify him at once.” This stands as a third example where John links Jesus’ hour with his death and the Father and Son’s mutual glorification in that death.

[xiv]Exod 33:18-34:7; 40:34-35. 

[xv]E.g., Exod 14:17-18; Isa 40:5.

[xvi]People will also die “in their sins” (John 8:21, 24), an OT expression when someone suffers death because they are guilty of rebellion against God (e.g., Num 16:26; Ezek 3:18; 18:18, 24, 16).

[xvii]John 1:29; 19:36; cf. 1 John 3:16; 4:9-10.

[xviii]E.g., Ps 11:6; 75:8; Isa 51:17; Jer 25:15; 49:12; 51:7.

[xix]Beasely-Murray, John, 213.

[xx]John 3:14; 8:28; 12:32.

[xxi]Isa 2:2, 11, 17; 5:16; 12:4; 30:18.

[xxii]John 7:39; 14:26; 15:26; 16:7; 20:22.

[xxiii]John 14:26; 15:26-27; 16:13. The Sprit’s witness that also manifests itself in what John has written (John 15:27; cf. 19:35; 21:24). On the unique redemptive-historical role the apostles possess in writing Scripture, especially as it relates to John’s presentation of the Spirit, see Ridderbos, Redemptive History, 14, 23, 38-30, 59-60, 64-68.

[xxiv]E.g., Exod 13:21; Pss 27:1; 36:9; 89:15; 104:2; Isa 10:17; 60:20; Dan 2:22; Hab 3:4; cf. 1 Tim 6:16.